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Description. This has a perennial root consisting of a short thick head, furnished with a great number of thick and long fibres. The leaves immediately arising from the root are numerous, and altogether make a large round tuft; they are large, oblong, without leaf stalks, wrinkled on the surface, entire at the edges, and of a deep green colour. The flowers are supported singly on long slender hairy fruit-stalks, which rise immediately from the root; they are large, and of a white or pale yellow colour. The seeds are small, numerous, and of a roundish figure.

Place. It is common in woods, hedges, and thickets, particularly in clayey soil.

Time. The flowers appear in March and April.

Government and virtues. It is under the dominion of Venus. The roots are used as a sternutatory for the head; the best way of using them is to bruise them, and express the juice, which being snuffed up the nose, occasions violent sneezing, and brings away a great deal of water, but without being productive of any bad effect, which is too often the case with remedies of this class. Dried and reduced to powder, it will produce the same effect, but not so powerfully. In this state it is said to be good for nervous disorders, but the dose must be small.

A drachm and a half of the dried roots, which are taken up in autumn, acts as a strong, but safe emetic.

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